Mar 27th, 2024

Product Backlog Vs Sprint Backlog in Agile

Naveen Kumar Singh
Naveen Kumar Singh

Naveen is a professional agile coach and has been working independently for a long time in the Asia... Read more

In the world of Agile, Product Backlog and Sprint Backlog are the most familiar topics of discussions. If you are embarking on Agile Journey, understanding the intricacies of such concepts is paramount.

Both Product Backlog and Sprint Backlog sound similar but they have different purposes in the Agile framework. In this blog, your one-stop guide to backlogs, we will discuss what's the difference between the two, and if they really matter.

What are the Different Types Of Backlogs?

In Agile, backlogs are essentially prioritized lists of tasks that need to be done. It helps the team stay focused and be aware of what is more important to deliver first. While there are different types of backlogs used in different Agile frameworks, the three most common are:

1. Product Backlog

A Product Backlog is a master list that includes features, bug fixes, technical debt, and research initiatives - all things required to improve the product.

The product owner prioritizes and manages the product backlog, ensuring that the most important items are at the top of the list.

Product backlog items are typically written as user stories, which are short descriptions of a feature from the perspective of the user. This helps the team to focus on user needs.

2. Sprint Backlog

Sprint Backlog is a subset of the product backlog that contains the items that the team has committed to completing in the current sprint. The time duration of the Sprint varies from organization to organization and project requirements. It can be anything between 1-4 weeks, while a 2 week sprint is considered ideal.

The sprint backlog is owned by the development team and is typically created during sprint planning, when the team discusses the product backlog and estimates how much work they can complete in the upcoming sprint.

Sprint backlog items are usually broken down into smaller tasks that can be achieved in a few days or less.

3. Release Backlog

This is a list of features that are planned for a specific release of the product. It helps to ensure that all of the features that are needed for a release are planned and tracked.

The release backlog is typically created by the product owner and the release manager, based on the product roadmap and the features that are in the product backlog. It helps the stakeholders understand the scope of the work and promotes better planning and coordination.

In addition to these three common types of backlogs, there are also other types of backlogs that can be used in Agile, such as:

  • Defect backlog: This is a list of bugs that need to be fixed.

  • Technical debt backlog: This is a list of technical improvements that need to be made to the product.

  • Kanban backlog: It is a visual way of managing work and is used in the Kanban framework.

The type of backlog that you use will depend on the specific Agile framework that you are using and the requirement of the project. However, all Agile backlogs should be:

  • Prioritized: The most important items should be at the top of the list.

  • Visible: Everyone on the team should be able to see the backlog.

  • Up-to-date: The backlog should be updated regularly to reflect the latest changes.

Backlogs if used effectively can help you improve your chances to deliver your products on time and within budget.

In this blog, as the topic demands, we will mostly focus on just Product Backlog and Sprint Backlog. So, let’s start.

What Is a Product Backlog?

A Product Backlog plays a crucial role in Agile frameworks like Scrum. Essentially, a product backlog is:

  • A prioritized list: It's not just a random series of tasks, but a carefully ordered sequence of features, bug fixes, improvements, and other initiatives related to a product. The items are ranked based on their priority important for the product's success.

  • A living document: It is constantly changed and evolved as the product, market, and user needs changes. It is possible to add the new items, and existing items can be re-prioritized, while some may even be removed entirely.

  • A single source of truth: It serves as the central repository for all the work that needs to be done for a particular product. Product Owners, Developers, and everyone involved should refer to the backlog to understand what needs to be accomplished.

Here are some key things to remember about the product backlog:

  • It's owned by the product owner: The product owner is responsible for maintaining the backlog, prioritizing its items, and ensuring it reflects the product's vision and roadmap.

  • It's refined regularly: The backlog is not a static document. It's regularly reviewed and refined by the product owner and the development team to meet the changing requirements. 

  • It's used for sprint planning: During each development cycle (often called a sprint), the team selects a subset of items from the backlog to focus on and complete within that time frame.

Top Key Benefits of using a product backlog

  • Strategic Roadmap: Provides a clear vision  of the product’s long term goals and direction to the team by prioritizing what is important. It includes features and initiatives based on their strategic value and user needs.

  • Flexibility and Adaptability: Allows for ongoing refinement and adjustments based on market changes, user feedback, and new learnings. This ensures the product stays relevant and competitive.

  • Transparency and Communication: Enables open communication among stakeholders, the Product Owner, and the development team. Everyone understands the product vision and priorities, fostering better collaboration.

  • Focus on Value: Prioritizing the backlog items based on their value to the user and the business ensures that resources are directed towards the most impactful features.

What is a Sprint Backlog in Scrum?

Sprint Backlog is a subset of the Product Backlog that defines what, why, and how of the upcoming sprint. It enables the team to track their progress and ensures smooth workflow.

Sprint Backlog contains:

  • Sprint Goal: This defines the overall objective or outcome the team aims to achieve by the end of the sprint.

  • Product Backlog Items: These are individual work items or features selected from the larger product backlog for completion within the specific sprint. They are usually broken down into smaller, more manageable tasks.

  • Actionable Plan: This details the specific steps and activities the team will take to accomplish the backlog items and achieve the sprint goal. It may include task breakdown, dependencies, estimated effort, and assigned team members.

Here are some key things to remember about the Sprint Backlog

  • The sprint backlog is dynamic and it constantly evolves over time. It is updated throughout the sprint as new information or challenges come up, or in case any progress is made.

  • The development team owns the Sprint Backlog and is responsible for creating, refining, and its adherence during the sprint.

  • The sprint backlog is distinct from the product backlog, which is a more comprehensive list of all features and functionalities for the entire project. The sprint backlog is drawn from the product backlog, focusing on a specific subset of items from the Product Backlog for each sprint.

Understanding the sprint backlog is crucial for anyone involved in agile projects, especially developers, product owners, and scrum masters. Using it effectively can increase transparency, team collaboration, and efficient delivery of project goals.

Top Benefits of Sprint Backlog

  • Actionable Plan: Defines the specific work items the development team will tackle during a particular time frame, i.e., sprint. It breaks down the product backlog into manageable chunks, ensuring focused and efficient work.

  • Predictability and Control: Provides a clear understanding of the scope and complexity of work within a sprint, allowing for better planning and resource allocation.

  • Team Ownership and Accountability: Empowers the development team to take ownership of the sprint backlog and actively participate in its refinement. This fosters a sense of responsibility and accountability in the team.

  • Continuous Feedback and Improvement: Enables the team for regular review and adaptation based on progress and feedback within each sprint. This leads to faster learning and quicker course correction.

Overall, the sprint backlog is a dynamic and essential tool for agile teams to plan, track, and deliver work efficiently within short sprints.


How to Create a Product Backlog and Sprint Backlog?

The product backlog and sprint backlog are crucial tools for managing Agile projects. Here's how to create them effectively:

Guide to Creating Product Backlog:

  1. Gather Requirements:

    • Conduct user interviews, gather market research, and analyze competitor offerings to understand user needs and product goals.

    • List down all features, functionalities, and enhancements required for the product.

  2. Prioritize the Items:

    • Use techniques like MoSCoW (Must-have, Should-have, Could-have, Won't-have) to prioritize items based on importance and urgency.

    • Consider business goals, user needs, technical feasibility, and dependencies.

  3. Refine the Items:

    • Break down large epics into smaller, actionable user stories using the INVEST principle (Independent, Negotiable, Valuable, Estimable, Small, Testable).

    • Add acceptance criteria for each user story to clarify the expected outcome.

  4. Maintain and Update:

    • Continuously review and update the product backlog with changing priorities and new insights.

    • Remove the items that are no longer relevant and split larger ones to make the goal more manageable and achievable.

Guide to Creating Sprint Backlog:  

  1. Sprint Planning:

    • Select the high-priority items from the product backlog that fit within the sprint duration (usually 1-4 weeks).

    • Discuss and estimate the effort required for each item using techniques like story points.

  2. Define Sprint Goal:

    • Establish a clear goal for the sprint that summarizes the intended deliverables and value.

    • This goal should keep the team motivated and must align with the bigger goal of the organization.

  3. Task Breakdown:

    • Further break down user stories into smaller, well-defined tasks that can be completed within the sprint.

    • Assign tasks to team members based on their skills and availability.

  4. Visualization and Tracking:

    • Use a visual tool like a Kanban board or task list to track the progress of sprint backlog items.

    • Update the status of tasks regularly and hold daily stand-up meetings to ensure transparency and communication.

Difference Between Product Backlog and Sprint Backlog

Comparison In
Product Backlog
Sprint Backlog
(1) Scope
A comprehensive list of all ideas, features, tasks, and bug fixes the product needs that sets product vision and direction.
A subset of the product backlog containing specific user stories and tasks chosen to focus on during a particular sprint.
(2) Content
It contains epics,user stories, features, or initiatives - focusing on business and user needs. The items are generally high-level and loosely defined.
Items are well-defined broken down into specific tasks to estimate complexity and efforts required.
(3) Ownership & Responsibility
Owned and managed by the product owner, who prioritizes items based on user value, market research, and stakeholder feedback.
Owned and managed by the development team, who collaborate with the product owner in choosing the right items from the product backlog and refining them for the sprint.
(4) Timeframe
A list of items constantly added, removed, or refined as the product evolves over time. It has no fixed timeframe.
Fixed for the duration of the sprint (usually 1-4 weeks) that represents a commitment by the team to deliver the planned work within that time frame.
(5) Focus
Provides a roadmap for the product's overall vision and strategy. It helps stakeholders understand the long-term direction and prioritize investments.
Focuses on delivering tangible value in short, iterative cycles towards a long-term goal. It ensures the team remains focused in timely delivery of the product. 

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Top 10 Tips to Effectively Manage Product Backlog and Sprint Backlog

  • 11. Align with Vision: Ensure all backlog items connect to your product vision, prioritizing the "why" behind your work.
  • 22. Prioritize Ruthlessly: Use a value-driven framework to rank items, keeping high-impact features at the top.
  • 33. Refine Continuously: Regularly refine backlog items, breaking them down into clear, concise, and testable units throughout the development process.
  • 44. Maintain a Manageable Size: Don't overload the backlog. Prioritize and remove unnecessary items to keep focus.
  • 55. Embrace Change: Be prepared to adapt the backlog as needs change. Add, remove, or refine items to reflect current priorities.
  • 66. Collaboration is Key: Get input from stakeholders, developers, and the team to ensure the backlog reflects everyone's needs.
  • 77. Focus on Value: When selecting items for a sprint, prioritize those that deliver the most value to users and the business.
  • 88. Transparency is Key: Make the backlog visible to the entire team, fostering collaboration and keeping everyone aligned.
  • 99. Two Sprints Ahead: Aim to have at least two sprints' worth of backlog items refined and ready for development.
  • 1010. Sprint Planning Ready: Ensure items are well-understood and estimated before committing to them in sprint planning.

Final Thoughts

Product backlog and sprint backlog are two sides of the same agile coin. The product backlog charts the overall course of the product, while the sprint backlog zooms in on the specific tasks for each development sprint. Understanding these differences is essential for effective project management in Agile. By keeping both backlogs prioritized and transparent, your Agile team can deliver value iteratively and respond to change effectively.


"The product backlog is the source of truth for everything that might be done to the product. The sprint backlog is the commitment for what will be done in the next sprint. - Mike Cohn (Author of Agile Estimating & Planning)"


Items in the Product Backlog are prioritized based on their value to the product and its stakeholders. The Product Owner is responsible for continuously refining and reordering the backlog items based on changing requirements and feedback.


The Product Owner is responsible for managing the Product Backlog. They are tasked with ensuring that the backlog is up-to-date, well-prioritized, and aligned with the overall vision and goals of the product.

The Sprint Backlog is created collaboratively by the Development Team during the Sprint Planning meeting. The team selects the items from the Product Backlog that they believe they can complete during the upcoming Sprint and decomposes them into smaller, actionable tasks.

Ideally, the Sprint Backlog remains unchanged during the Sprint to maintain focus and stability. However, if new information arises or if the team encounters unexpected challenges, the Sprint Backlog can be adjusted in consultation with the Product Owner and with agreement from the Development Team.

The Product Backlog is continuously refined throughout the project lifecycle. It is an ongoing process that involves gathering feedback, analyzing market trends, and adapting to changing priorities. However, it is particularly refined during Sprint Review and Sprint Planning meetings to ensure that it reflects the latest insights and requirements.


Naveen Kumar Singh

Naveen is a professional agile coach and has been working independently for a long time in the Asia Pacific. He works with the software development team and product team to develop awesome products based on empirical processes.

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